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Building Geolocation Services into an IoT solution:

What to think about.  Where to start.

By Antony Pegg - Solutions Group, Verizon Location Services

 

Let’s say you are developing an IoT solution that requires some level of geolocation capability as part of its functionality.

 

Or perhaps you have an existing solution that could be dramatically enhanced by adding location services to its core operations.

 

Or maybe you are thinking of an application where location is the sole mission.  As in, where is this piece of equipment?

 

Where do you start? What should you consider in terms of architecture and programming? What hardware, DevKits, API, or backend services will you need? How will you actually deploy and manage the application?

 

Start with the business need

 

The fact is, with the current state of geolocation technology, the question is rarely if something is possible. As geo providers like MapQuest and others can tell you, whatever you are thinking is probably possible, one way or another.

 

The more critical question is figuring out what you really need -- exactly -- in terms of location capability in the solution. What precisely do you want to know? And when? How will you actually leverage that data within the application? Or in downstream systems? How will that data improve, affect, or change your operations?  And how much investment in costs and development time would be practical for the solution?

 

As with most development issues, the answers to these questions will drive all your downstream decisions about hardware, programming and integration.

 

Knowing precisely what you want to do -- and why -- will clarify everything.

 

Here is what to think about.

 

How precise must the location data be?

 

At the moment, an IoT application can generate location data either by relying on cell tower triangulation, or on GPS functionality.

 

If you need to pinpoint a location within a few square meters, virtually anywhere in the world, the device needs to be equipped with GPS. That would apply to solutions that need to report locations at the level of a street address let’s say, or to locating a customer near a particular store, or locating a cargo container within a trucking or shipping facility. 

 

Naturally, GPS-enabled devices are more costly to deploy and maintain, and draw more power, which will affect decisions about battery technology and service life.

 

Relying on cellular network location is simpler, in that any wireless-enabled IoT device can generate location data. But triangulating on cell towers is much less precise than GPS data -- on the order of dozens to hundreds of meters. And the accuracy can vary considerably depending on the density of cell towers in a given area. This may be entirely sufficient for applications that only need ‘approximate’ locations

 

How often do you need a location?

 

In terms of power consumption and cellular usage, there is huge difference between reporting continuous location in near real time, reporting only when polled, or reporting just once an hour, or once a day, for example.

 

Capturing location, speed, and altitude data on a continuous basis -- in fleet management applications, or shipment tracking for example -- may require direct powering of the device through the vehicle, in that battery power may be impractical for anything but short-term operations.

 

Will you need to log location data within the device, and then upload in batch later, mainly for documentation or analysis purposes? That is less demanding, but not useful for real-time tracking.

 

Note too, that continuous or real-time capability will require back end and administration systems capable of capturing and displaying the data in useful form.

 

Privacy of the location data

 

In some IoT applications you will also need to address data privacy concerns in the collection storage of the location data.

 

Data that tracks the location of drivers or remote service personnel, for example, can indeed come under privacy laws and regulations in many contexts. And applications that collect location data on private consumers or customers will almost certainly require privacy protections and processes.

 

Depending on the nature of the application, this could entail proper notifications and consents, secured transmissions, and safeguarding any collected and stored data.

 

 

What other data will you be collecting and transmitting?

 

If you will be collecting and transmitting other data along with the location -- such as product temperature, vehicle operations, and the like -- that will also effect power consumption and data usage, as well as requiring a more complex and integrated device. 

 

Here too, continuous, real-time communications will be more involved than merely logging and recording the data within the device for later transmission.

 

Will you need to control or command the device?

 

If you will need to transmit instructions or execute commands to the device -- either based on location data, or other parameters -- this capability will naturally affect the power consumption and communications capability of the device.

 

 

How will you visualize, use and store the location data

 

Bottom line, the key to leveraging geo-spatial data is using the information to support business or operations goals, either by deploying all-new applications or enhancing the value of existing solutions with location data.

 

In most cases this will involve visualizing and displaying your data -- whether for real-time monitoring or later analysis.

 

Within ThingSpace, you can take advantage of MapQuest APIs, explore options for taking latitude/longitude coordinates and visualizing it in various ways on maps, integrating with other data such as street addresses, Points of Interest, store locations and others. You can access simple to use MapQuest geospatial APIs through ThingSpace to help you build great experiences, connect your business, and delight customers.

 

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Using LTE Connectivity to Enable IoT Development

 

Contributors: Tom Amershek, Sr. Mgr., IoT Solution Architecture & Development ; Robert Shidla, Sr. Mgr., IoT Solution Architecture & Development

 

Cellular connectivity can be a powerful partner for you as you develop your next IoT solution. It has several advantages over non-cellular, unlicensed spectrum options, which I discussed in an earlier post. In this post, I’ll discuss how 4G LTE networks can make IoT development projects more successful.

 

What are the key factors when selecting an LTE technology for an IoT developer?
The adage that “application drives infrastructure” applies for IoT solutions especially. For IoT applications, the desired throughput of the application during the device’s intended lifetime, and the addition of required features like voice will drive you toward which LTE connectivity Category is best for you. The most common LTE Categories suited for use in IoT implementations are Cat-4, Cat-1, Cat-M1, and NB-IoT. The following chart outlines some of the differences.

 

Characteristic

Cat-4

Cat-1

Cat-M1

NB-IoT

Typical Application

Computing

M2M or CDMA Replacement

Wearables

Meter

Module Cost

Comparable to 4G

Comparable to 3G

Comparable to 2G

Comparable to 2G

Voice

VoLTE

VoLTE

Non-conversational VoLTE

No

Uplink Rate

50Mbps

5Mbps

350Kbps

50Kbps

Downlink Rate

150Mbps

10Mbps

350Kbps

50Kbps

Rx Bandwidth

20MHz

20MHz

1.4MHz

200KHz

Duplex

Full

Full

Half

Half

Mobility

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Licensed Spectrum

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Once you’ve decided which Categories allow the features you need, hardware costs and availability from your provider will help narrow the decision even further.

 

For example, if your application requires video over cellular, you could eliminate Cat-M1 and NB-IoT from the list immediately because low-throughput, half-duplex technology most likely cannot adequately meet the needs of such an application. From there, the quality of the video needed and the typical duration of the transfer may further steer you toward either a Cat-4 or Cat-1 device.

 

How can Verizon’s ThingSpace assist developers when using LTE for IoT?
From the Verizon ThingSpace page, the Devices section showcases hardware options for prototyping LTE solutions at Verizon. For customers who do not yet have an Enterprise account, ThingSpace offers the ability to request access to a trial line of service on which the LTE modem can be activated.

 

ThingSpace provides access to the Open Development program at Verizon where customers can register as hardware developers and receive guidance through both the development and network certification processes. Once certified, customers can choose to list devices in the Device Showcase - a searchable list of certified hardware solutions where other customers and partners can locate devices when searching by feature, application, vertical and other categories. Once the software development portion of the solution begins, ThingSpace offers REST APIs for managing connectivity (activations, rate plan changes, viewing usage, etc.), and APIs for SMS to and from those LTE devices.

Inside the Verizon ThingSpace community at thingspace.verizon.com, you’ll have a unique opportunity to get involved with the Verizon partnership ecosystem and take advantage of these resources.

 

Members of the community can:

  • Share ideas, challenges, and inspiration with your peers
  • Communicate with Verizon to chat with subject matter experts
  • Read the latest news and information related to ThingSpace updates and developer events

To get into the ecosystem, and see how Verizon can help with your next development project, join the ThingSpace community today.

Key Factors to consider in IoT Cellular Connectivity

Contributors: Tom Amershek, Sr. Mgr., IoT Solution Architecture & Development; Robert Shidla, Sr. Mgr., IoT Solution Architecture & Development

 

In previous posts, we discussed the “starting points” for developing IoT solutions. There is the selection of a Development Kit, and the need to determine what type of connectivity is needed for your solution. If cellular connectivity is preferred, there are several important things you should know before beginning to develop. In this post, I’ll try and answer some of the key cellular technology questions.

 

Why cellular?
An IoT solution, especially in the Supply Chain and Transportation industries, has to be able to connect to the network from anywhere without the need for reconfiguration. Cellular networks from providers like Verizon keep your solution connected, while simplifying common tasks like product line testing, installation, remote updates and device maintenance.

 

A new product or solution never gets a second chance to make a first impression. A user-friendly, positive experience is just what is needed. When a user can unbox a product, apply power, and immediately begin using it, the experience is much more likely to be positive. There’s no pairing or complicated setup to undergo before launch. Cellular gives you the ability to ship a product ready-to-use, out-of-the-box.

 

The cellular licensed spectrum has several advantages over unlicensed spectrums like what is used for WiFi, Bluetooth, LoRa, and SigFox. The biggest advantage is that only the owner of the spectrum license is permitted to transmit on the frequency in the given licensed area. Unlicensed wireless technologies force users to compete for “clean air” in a large pool of devices transmitting on unlicensed frequencies, including 900MHz, 2.4GHz, and 5GHz. Verizon owns several blocks of licensed spectrum.

 

How is LTE different from 2G and 3G cellular?
LTE, which is commonly referred to as 4G because of its inherent performance numbers, is the Long-Term Evolution of the GSM standard. In the case of Verizon’s network, GSM represents a departure from the CDMA standard, which is used for Verizon’s existing 2G and 3G networks. LTE networks are an improvement over the previous network generations in several ways. It allows link-layer encryption, better spectral efficiency, modulation techniques for improved power budget, multiple antenna options (MIMO), decreased latency (from sub-100ms to sub-30ms), and channel bandwidth increases for much greater throughput.

 

Although some IoT companies are still using the legacy 2G and 3G networks, carriers worldwide have already begun migrating away from their 2G networks and many have published plans for also retiring 3G.

 

What are the different types of LTE technologies?
LTE defines Classes or Categories for how the User Equipment (UE) interacts with the tower, or the eNode B. The term Category is often abbreviated as “Cat,” such as Cat-M or Cat-1. The following chart describes some of the important differences in the various Categories.

 

Characteristic

Cat-4

Cat-1

Cat-M1

NB-IoT

Typical Application

Computing

M2M or CDMA Replacement

Wearables

Meter

Module Cost

Comparable to 4G

Comparable to 3G

Comparable to 2G

Comparable to 2G

Voice

VoLTE

VoLTE

Non-conversational VoLTE

No

Uplink Rate

50Mbps

5Mbps

350Kbps

50Kbps

Downlink Rate

150Mbps

10Mbps

350Kbps

50Kbps

Rx Bandwidth

20MHz

20MHz

1.4MHz

200KHz

Duplex

Full

Full

Half

Half

Mobility

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Licensed Spectrum

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Take note: Just because a network operator has LTE network available, it does not necessarily mean it supports every LTE category.

 

In my next post, I’ll be delving into some of the IoT-specific implementations available with the 4G LTE network.

These issues and more are discussed frequently within the Verizon ThingSpace Community at thingspace.verizon.com.

 

As a member, you’ll have a unique opportunity to get involved with the Verizon partnership ecosystem.

Members of the community can:

  • Share ideas, challenges, and inspiration with your peers
  • Communicate with Verizon to chat with subject matter experts
  • Read the latest news and information related to ThingSpace updates and developer events

To get into the ecosystem, and see how Verizon can help with your next development project, join the ThingSpace community today.

Verizon was a key sponsor of the TechCrunch Disrupt San Francisco (SF) Hackathon on September 16-17, 2017 at Pier 48 in San Francisco.

 

Developers and Engineers descended from all over the world to take part in this 24-hour hacking event to build a new product and present it on the Disrupt SF stage to a panel of expert judges. Hundreds of Developers and Engineers competed for a variety of prizes using the ThingSpace and MapQuest APIs.

 

The Hackers were judged on the creativity of their idea, the difficulty of their technical implementation, the number of ThingSpace APIs (including Device Messaging, Smart Cities and MapQuest APIs) incorporated in the hack. The hackers needed to clearly articulate how they used the APIs in their submission. The top performers that adhered to these criteria are featured in the video https://youtu.be/HmBfAxbQFOs

 

Come and see how quick and simple it can be to get started using ThingSpace.

By Joe Cozzarelli (joecozz), IoT Business Development Manager at Verizon

 

 

(Note: this is the second of two posts about Selecting a DevKit. For the first, click here.)

 

When it comes time to develop your new IoT solution, you’re going to want to start from a strategic place that enables you to get to revenue with efficiency and scale. A hardware development kit, or DevKit, is a tool that will help you show a proof-of-concept before going to production on a solution. A good DevKit requires a particular set of characteristics to help you stay on the path to revenue and scale. Our four critical factors are:

 

  • Ecosystem Flexibility
  • Microcontroller Selection
  • Connectivity Selection
  • Open Development

 

In an earlier post, I dug into the power of ecosystem flexibility and microcontroller selection; let’s get into what connectivity selection and what open development can mean for your next project.

 

Getting device data to your platform is critical to building your IoT solution. A big part of that is selecting the right Connectivity model to maximize performance characteristics like battery life and coverage. That’s why connectivity must be part of the conversation during the earliest phases of design. With the advent of new connectivity types such as LTE CAT-1, LTE CAT-M1and NB-IoT, there are more features and capabilities than ever for developers to draw from when designing a solution and at the same time, many questions that need to be answered before making a decision. For example, does the application use voice? How much data will be used in the application? A DevKit that easily supports a variety of connectivity types is the most direct way to evaluate and ultimately select the right type of connectivity for your application.

 

To help you begin your next solution on the right foot, our DevKits have been pre-selected for common IoT use cases while keeping connectivity options in mind. That can mean design efficiency, profitability, and scalability of the final product. And that leads to successful implementations.

 

ThingSpace, Verizon’s IoT platform, operates on the Verizon Open Development environment, where designers can find certified devices and modules. Every device that operates on the Verizon wireless network must be certified. Some OEMs choose to use a Chip Down design strategy which requires a deep RF bench. To simplify the design process, component OEMs have created a wide variety of modules that integrate basic radio elements (baseband, transceiver and power management) as well as other salient features into easy-to-use design elements. These modules can be certified as elements and, when integrated into devices, reduce the time to certify a device significantly.  There are also fully certified devices that have been tested and are ready to go. Coming soon to the Open Development environment will be ThingSpace Ready modules and devices which will be tested to support the ThingSpace SDK, allowing easy access to ThingSpace and its features.

 

Inside the Verizon ThingSpace community at thingspace.verizon.com, you’ll have a unique opportunity to get involved with the Verizon partnership ecosystem.

 

Members of the community can:

  • Share ideas, challenges, and inspiration with your peers
  • Communicate with Verizon to chat with subject matter experts
  • Read the latest news and information related to ThingSpace updates and developer events

 

To get into the ecosystem, and see how Verizon can help with your next development project, join the ThingSpace community today.

By Joe Cozzarelli ( joecozz), IoT Business Development Manager at Verizon

 

Designing an IoT solution can be a daunting task, and the challenges associated with all the elements of building a successful offering cut across many disciplines and critical capabilities. The advent of the hardware development kit (DevKit) can accelerate the time to first demonstration and ultimately the time to market for new IoT solutions. Verizon has embraced the DevKit model by developing key OEM partnerships and building the ThingSpace platform, all while remaining flexible to developers’ preferences. We have made every effort to make sure that designers have a good start on their design by selecting a flexible base kit with an appropriate microcontroller, cellular connectivity, and ThingSpace easy access. We built this strategy based on several key factors.

 

At the outset, we recognized that DevKits were not substitutes for production-grade hardware so we took that into consideration. They are tools to show proof-of-concept and gain early approval and acceptance of a design approach. For example, when a designer either comes up with an idea or is asked by the business side of an enterprise to validate an idea, starting with a DevKit is an easy way to demonstrate that first level of functionality.

 

Of course, developers have to consider many criteria when starting a project but the most significant goal is to get to market and generate revenue as quickly as possible.  That means the faster you can demonstrate functionality the sooner you can secure key resources such as headcount, budget and time. A DevKit is a fantastic way to accomplish just that. The process can be tricky and designers can’t afford to waste time with restarts so we considered some critical factors in selecting our DevKits:

 

  • Ecosystem Flexibility
  • Microcontroller Selection
  • Connectivity Selection
  • Open Development

 

In this post, I’ll get into ecosystem flexibility and microcontroller selection factors and then a second post will provide some insight into connectivity selection and open development.

 

The first factor we considered was ecosystem flexibility with respect to microcontrollers. Verizon recognizes that developers invest a great deal of time and effort into learning and becoming proficient in their preferred set of tools.  So we are partnering with each of the leading MCU manufactures to configure kits that are “ThingSpace Ready,” which means they have all the features developers are used to plus the kits easily connect to ThingSpace. We have also used our engineering resources to configure kits in a way that “makes sense” for IoT solutions.

 

By leveraging the flexibility of Verizon working with partners you’re comfortable with, a ThingSpace Ready DevKit can help you bring your next solution to market efficiently and help get to profitability faster than ever.

 

The second factor to consider is the “sizing” of the Microcontroller in the DevKit.  It can have a real impact on the success or failure of your device. Verizon has selected microcontrollers that are sized for most IoT applications with appropriate speed and bit width. It must support a security strategy that includes, at a minimum, secure boot and secure key storage. Our ThingSpace Ready DevKits also support Verizon’s IoT Secure Credentialing. We have done our best to get developers started with familiar partners and a microcontroller sized for scalability and success.

 

(Note: this is the first of two posts about Selecting a DevKit. For the second, check back next week.

 

Inside the Verizon ThingSpace community at thingspace.verizon.com, you’ll have a unique opportunity to get involved with the Verizon partnership ecosystem.

 

Members of the community can:

 

  • Share ideas, challenges, and inspiration with your peers
  • Communicate with Verizon to chat with subject matter experts
  • Read the latest news and information related to ThingSpace updates and developer events

To get into the ecosystem, and see how Verizon can help with your next development project, join the ThingSpace community today.

SAN FRANCISCO – The video-driven home security startup Canary, maker of Canary, the all-in-one security solution with HD camera, siren and air monitor, passed rigorous testing to attain the first Internet of Things (IoT) security certification from ICSA Labs, a leading third-party testing and certification body and an independent division of Verizon. This was announced today at Techonomy 16: man, machines & the network.

Canary’s all-in-one solution will now carry the ICSA Labs’ IoT mark of approval indicating the Canary solution underwent stringent security testing. The Canary device helps consumers safeguard their home by sending alerts to an app on a smartphone when activity is detected. Users can then view a live video stream and sound a 90-decibel siren or call local authorities via the app.

In addition, ICSA Labs found no criteria violations requiring correction or retesting of its device. ICSA Labs uses its IoT Device Security Testing Framework as the basis for all IoT security certification testing. The framework currently contains six categories of testing elements (alert/logging, cryptography, authentication, communications, physical security, and platform security) and applies a set of security and privacy testing requirements appropriate for the particular kind or type of IoT device tested. 

As part of the certification process, the Canary device will be tested over its lifecycle at regularly established intervals to verify the device remains secure.

“In an industry as fast growing and diverse as the Internet of Things, data security is too often an afterthought,” said Chris Rill, co-founder and CTO, Canary. “Until now, there hasn't been a trusted resource to vet many of the connected home products currently flooding the market. For decades, ICSA has been a reliable and responsible institution that has tested and certified thousands of IT products. There isn’t a better organization to set the standard for how IoT devices should be developed and assessed. We worked from day one to make sure Canary can sit securely in your home and we’re thrilled to be the first product to receive this certification.”

The lack of security in many IoT devices deployed in the market today is a serious concern for organizations and consumers. Consumers are fast becoming aware that with IoT comes an increased risk of cyberthreats. Unsecured devices offer a new entry point into an individual’s home network and can threaten other connected devices. This can also lead to consumer data loss of personal records, credit card information, health records and more.

“Our IoT Testing and Certification Program directly addresses the #1 concern among IoT technology adopters which is security,” said George Japak, managing director, ICSA Labs. “With the ICSA Labs certification seal, Canary home security system consumers are reassured that the device they selected meets our stringent security requirements for IoT devices.”

The certification program is recommended as part of an overall compliance program for organizations that brand and resell IoT devices and sensors; organizations implementing IoT devices and sensors in their businesses; and device and sensor makers.

Verizon released its annual “State of the Market:  Internet of Things 2017” report today, revealing the drivers and barriers to IoT adoption as well as the ways early adopters are getting a head start.    Based on insights from a study commissioned by Verizon and third party research,  this year’s report proves that the Internet of Things is at the core of digital transformation, with growth up 31 percent from 2016.  Some highlights include:

  • Opportunity for revenue growth is the biggest factor driving IoT adoption
  • Regulatory compliance remains a driving factor behind enterprise IoT implementation
  • Standards, security, interoperability, and cost make up over 50 percent of executive concerns around IoT

Download the report, listen to our podcast and check out our 360 video on your headset, phone or tablet:

In her recent keynote at the IoT Evolution Expo in Las Vegas, marybethhall, Verizon Director of Product for IoT talked about the company’s work in Smart Cities, and how the ThingSpace platform is making it easier to develop applications that are improving life for citizens all over the world.

The Verizon ThingSpace platform is ideally suited for Smart City implementations, thanks to its ability to interact with any type of endpoint and unmatched connectivity options. What is the most important step to take in order to facilitate ThingSpace implementations?

Hall talked about what she sees as the key element to a successful Smart City implementation. To watch the full keynote, click here.

IoT is bridging the gap between the physical and the digital world as evidenced by the sharing economy where people are moving from ownership to usership. And the development and management of these types of applications is tied directly to the capabilities of the ThingSpace platform.

Of course connectivity is at the heart of Verizon’s platform, and according to Hall, the most important early step for cities to be smarter is implementing the public WiFi network.

That’s because every IoT initiative and product needs connectivity, and the infrastructure of that connectivity is anchored in WiFi. Verizon is working with a number of U.S. cities as part of Public Private partnerships, including in Boston and Sacramento, where the company is already providing free WiFi.

“We’re making a billion dollar investment in the City of Boston in redoing all of their [connectivity] infrastructure, and we’re adding the wireless elements for autonomous vehicles for smart traffic and, for intelligent video,” she said. “This will allow customers to really innovate. Our job is to provide the tools to let them do that.”

Some of those tools come from Verizon’s work in Cat-M, VoLTE, and NB-IoT, which will drive down the cost of battery and increase the life of devices, while the ThingSpace community helps developers collaborate and use the tools that will get their goals accomplished.

Members of the ThingSpace community at thingspace.verizon.com, have a unique opportunity to get involved with the Verizon partnership ecosystem. There, they can:

  • Share ideas, challenges, and inspiration with your peers
  • Communicate with Verizon to chat with subject matter experts
  • Read the latest news and information related to ThingSpace updates and developer events

To get into the ecosystem, join the ThingSpace community today.

To watch the entire keynote, click here.

At Verizon, our goal is to improve the quality of life for people living in cities around the world and increase the ways and efficiency in which cities operate. It’s not just about smart technology, connectivity or applications; it starts with a focus on the people and their basic wants and needs. We partner with each city to design infrastructure, systems and processes that elevate the way they provide services in new and cost-effective ways.

 

Get a snapshot of what our team members are thinking about in Smart Communities by visiting our blog articles. The latest is a perspective by our VP of City Solutions Sean Harrington on “Creating the City of the Future”: http://smartbrief.com/original/2017/08/creating-city-future-today

IoT Evolution Expo has evolved to become the leading educational and networking forum for businesses looking to understand how to develop and implement IoT solutions that drive measurable results and business transformation. The event features a robust exhibit floor, powerful keynotes, case studies, live demos, unique sessions, special events, networking opportunities and much more.

 

On Wednesday, July 19 at IoT Evolution in Las Vegas, Mary Beth Hall, Director of IoT Product Development/Management for ThingSpace, provided a keynote, addressing Verizon’s Digital Ecosystem strategy and how ThingSpace enables IoT for Smart Communities as well as all Industries--from Energy, Healthcare to Manufacturing and Agriculture. Uzair Siddiqui, Senior Product & Marketing Manager IoT - Connected Solutions for ThingSpace, created a working prototype using ThingSpace, Verizon’s IoT Platform and Cat M1 network to transmit sensor data to the ThingSpace IoT platform to showcase ‘idea to prototype’ in minutes. In addition, Verizon’s MapQuest Arthur May, Principal Product Manager, IoT Platforms presented on Building IoT Platforms for Third Party Use.

 

For more information on Verizon and MapQuest’s IoT Evolution speaker engagements, please see: http://www.iotevolutionexpo.com/west/

In an MIT Technology Review article, Elizabeth Woyke reported that, "In March, [Verizon] began collecting car, bike, and pedestrian traffic data at one of [Boston's] most hectic intersections.  'Boston will use the information to redesign its streets', says Vineet Gupta, director of policy and planning for the Boston Transportation Department.  'The data can measure if interventions such as changing traffic signal timings or installing a bike lane have been effective, he adds.'"

Link to article: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/607975/how-a-wireless-sensor-system-in-the-busiest-city-intersections-can-save-lives/

The LA edition of curbed.com reported that, "The Los Angeles City Council unanimously voted to dedicate $27 million in the next fiscal year to Vision Zero, a plan to eliminate the city’s rising traffic deaths. The plan will also point LA towards a future of fewer cars."

 

Link to article : https://la.curbed.com/2017/5/18/15660082/vision-zero-walking-biking-budget-bonin 

Recently, Govtech.com wrote, "Cities across the country have signed onto the Vision Zero initiative, an ambitious program to eliminate roadway deaths completely. New York, Austin, Texas, Los Angeles and Denver all have pledged resources to pursue the ultimate goal of safer streets.

San Francisco-based Zendrive, who has developed software that measures unsafe driving through smartphone sensors, partnered with New York University’s Tandon School of Engineering to compare hard braking and rapid acceleration habits and determine if there is a correlation to collision sites."

 

Link to article: http://www.govtech.com/fs/Cities-Look-to-New-Predictive-Tool-to-Meet-Vision-Zero-Goals.html 

The San Francisco Chronicle ran an article that said, "A San Francisco lawmaker wants to take the challenging next step of spreading an online canopy across the city with municipal service.The proposal from Supervisor Mark Farrell is loaded with potential. If he can pull it off, tech hub San Francisco would be the largest city in the country to offer an Internet connection, anytime and anywhere."

 

Link to article: http://www.sfchronicle.com/opinion/editorials/article/Citywide-Wi-Fi-is-a-promising-but-challenging-idea-11211157.php